environmental impact of coffee production in brazil
170,000 coffee farms in 26 countries have earned Rainforest Alliance certification, covering more than 1 million acres (427,000 hectares). A disadvantage of copper-based fungicide, in addition to cost, is that it accumulates in the soil and can reach levels toxic to plants and other organisms (Amerson, 2000; Muller et al., 2009). This $10 billion industry is not harmless because there are many environmental and ecological problems that result from coffee production.1 For every cup of coffee consumed, it is almost certain that one square inch of rainforest was destroyed.2 Chemical buildup in soils and loss of forest shade are consequences of mass coffee production. It infects all stages of the crop, from flowers to ripe fruits and occasionally leaves, and may cause up to 70% or 80% crop losses if no control measures are adopted, with maximum crop losses occurring following infection of green berries, leading to formation of dark, sunken lesions (Figure 5) and premature dropping and mummification of the fruits (as cited in Silva et al., 2006). They are sedentary nematodes; the females settle into the rootlets of the coffee trees, causing distorted knots known as galls. Around the same time, the Dutch introduced plants from Amsterdam to their South American colony in Suriname (in 1718); from there, coffee was introduced to French Guiana in 1719 and Brazil in 1727. While coffee originates from the humid, tropical forests in southern Ethiopia and South Sudan and around the globe is largely grown in many former forest landscapes – some of which located in biodiversity hotspots or protected areas such as the Mata Atlântica and the Cerrado region in Brazil, the Mesoamerican Forests in Central America and the Eastern Afromontane Forests hosting the … The fruit of coffee is known as a cherry and the seed inside is known as the bean. "If I hadn't done it, things would have gotten ugly," he says. Brazil continues to be the world’s largest coffee producer, and due to use of mechanized harvesting, it has achieved much higher productivity than with hand-picking (Thurston, 2013a). Figure 5. Conservation of coffee germplasm as seeds is not a viable option due to the recalcitrant/intermediate storage behavior of seeds (Dulloo et al., 1998; Ellis et al., 1990). The tree has an open branching system with a main vertical (orthotropic) stem from which arise primary plagiotropic branches from “head of series” buds. Over the past fifty years, production has increased from 26 million to 260 million tons. (Thurston, 2013a). Coffea field gene banks were established in several countries as a result of the collecting missions; the gene banks hold accessions from the collecting missions as well as cultivated plants selected in plantations and breeding centers. Agriculture drives 80% of tropical deforestation and coffee farming requires huge amounts of … The disease resulted in significant loss in production of robusta coffee in the 1990s in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, killing hundreds of trees (Hindorf & Omondi, 2011). Long-range dispersal is primarily by wind. The economic impact of the disease has been relatively low, and hence very limited research has been done on developing resistance varieties (Muller et al., 2009). You can see the effects in places like Naygney Assu's farm, tucked on a quiet hillside in Espirito Santo state in eastern Brazil. Although coffee is predominantly grown in mixed-crop, agroforestry systems promoting conservation and organic farming, the demand for high-quality coffees resulted in increased costs of production and processing that are beyond the capacity of most coffee farmers in Africa. The golden grain was reponsible for 10.2% of the Brazilian exported commodities in 2011. It is a monophagous pest that attacks only coffee plants (as cited in Filho, 2006). Focus on environmental aspects and social justice; no synthetic chemicals, soil conservation, no GMOs, etc. It is an introduced pest from Africa, and crop losses of up to 50% are possible. The top ten producers account for about 88% of total global coffee production and exports. Cultural measures that can be adopted to reduce infestations include: reducing heavy shade, keeping the coffee bush open by pruning, picking coffee at least once a week during the main harvest season, stripping the trees of any remnant berries once harvesting is done, ensuring that no berries are left on the ground, and destroying all infested berries by burning (Crowe, 2009). Environmental effects of coffee production The dark side of coffee. These threaten different aspects of the natural abundance and are being addressed by a variety of organisations and initiatives. Perdona tells me families are already going hungry in Sao Gabriel da Palha. Water availability, in the form of rainfall and atmospheric humidity, affects growth of coffee. Environment + Energy; ... there has been a long-term impact on coffee ... Studies indicate that a 1°C rise in temperature would result in a loss of 25% of Brazil’s Arabica coffee production. The free-market period, which began in 1990, had two subperiods of significantly low price levels, 1989 to 1993 and 1999 to 2004, the latter being the longest period of low prices ever recorded (ICO, 2014). Coffee is a truly global commodity, with the coffee value chain comprising a host of participants, from the producers to intermediary players to the final consumer. Several of the initiatives focus on providing a structure for implementing, administering, and monitoring social and environmental standards throughout the product chain, particularly at the production level (IISD, 2003). Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) This strategy helped increase yields significantly, especially in Brazil, where coffee is grown in sunned, mechanically tended crop circles, much like corn in Iowa. He says he and others are moving out of the coffee business for good. Krishnan (2013) articulated the urgent need to develop a comprehensive strategy for the conservation of coffee genetic resources through a thorough evaluation of existing germplasm. Under field and laboratory conditions, differences in resistance of coffee trees to CBD have been observed, with higher resistance in Geisha 10, Blue Mountain, K7, Rume Sudan, and progenies of Hibrido de Timor than in Harar and Bourbon in Kenya (Silva et al., 2006). Various coffee areas display a broad array of shade-management systems, ranging from no shade to intense shade. Farmers here have been growing robusta — a coffee bean used in espressos and instant coffee — since the 1950s. Coffee fruits affected by coffee berry disease in Kenya. Walking over his coffee field is a noisy experience, because it's desiccated. There is an urgent need to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change on coffee production by maintaining quality environments through minimization of deforestation and forest degradation. Among the top ten producers, Brazil, Vietnam, and Colombia together produce and export almost 60% of the global total (Table 2). This provides tremendous opportunity for market expansion through promotion of coffee consumption in both producing and consuming countries. The spots gradually increase in diameter, and masses of orange uredospores are seen on the undersurfaces of the leaves (Figures 3 and 4). Figure 4. In the coming decades, climate change will have a huge impact on coffee production, especially C. arabica, which is a climate-sensitive species. In 1974, Erna Knutsen coined the phrase “specialty coffee” to describe the high-end, green coffees of limited quantities she sold to small roasters; the coffees were sourced from specific geographic microclimates and had unique flavor profiles. World Coffee Research (WCR) is a collaborative, not-for-profit 501(c)5 research organization with the mission to grow, protect, and enhance supplies of quality coffee while improving the livelihoods of the families who produce it. Infected coffee trees do not necessarily die, but they are debilitated under normal growing conditions (Castillo et al., 2009). Hence, coffee is conserved in field gene banks (Engelmann et al., 2007). The larvae, upon hatching, feed on the seed. However, like every country in the world, it has its own set of environmental issues. All these factors threaten livelihoods in many coffee-growing countries. Developing adaptation strategies will be critical in sustaining the coffee economy and livelihoods in many countries. Loss in productivity is mainly due to leaf loss. Global, but most organic coffee comes from Latin America, especially Mexico; all farms, High; accredited certification agencies monitor organic standards for production, processing, and handling, Focus on biodiversity conservation, improving environmental and social conditions in tropical agriculture; emphasis on environmental protection, shade, basic labor and living conditions, and community relations, Latin American countries only; midrange, with big and medium-size estates of shade-grown coffee producers only, as well as some cooperatives, Utz Kapeh Foundation (Ahold Coffee Company in cooperation with Guatemalan coffee suppliers), Emphasis on creating transparency along the supply chain and rewarding responsible coffee producers using good agricultural practices; standards on environmental protection and management, and labor and living conditions, Mainly in Latin America, but growing in Asia and Africa; producers of all sizes and production types, Medium across all pillars of sustainability; third-party certification, Focus on sourcing high-quality sustainable coffee in a way that is respectful of the environment and farming communities, Narrow; high-quality Nespresso-only coffee growers, Medium across all pillars of sustainability; third-party verification, Starbucks C.A.F.E. (2009) identified a comprehensive strategy that will sustain biodiversity, ecosystem services, and livelihoods in the face of climate change. The top ten countries account for about 81% of total imports, with the United States importing almost a quarter of the total imports, followed by Germany at 18%. The ideal moisture content of dried green beans is about 12%. 2 May 2014 Some of the threats contributing to the erosion of coffee genetic diversity include human population pressures, volatile coffee markets, and global climate change. Source: IISD (2003), Ponte (2004), and Reinecke et al. He estimates that the yearly increase of coffee land reaches about 100,000 hectares, which points to a critical issue: Deforestation. "Coffee depends on a lot of water," says Perseu Perdoná, an agronomist with the local coffee cooperative. The species was later classified under the genus Coffea as Coffea arabica by Linnaeus in 1737 (Charrier & Berthaud, 1985). Specifically, climate change has been demonstrated to have had a negative impact on the soil, insects, agricultural diseases, temperatures, and rain that coffee producers, such as Brazil, rely on (or want to stray away from in the case of disease). The fruit is comprised of the epicarp (skin), mesocarp (pulp), endocarp (parchment), integument (silverskin), endosperm (bean), and embryo. Worldwide, an estimated 125 million people are dependent on coffee for their livelihoods (Osorio, 2002), with more than 50 countries producing and exporting coffee, almost all in the developing world (Lewin et al., 2004; NCA, 2017). This was followed by the opening of the first Starbucks store in Pike’s Place in Seattle in 1971. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), an insect endemic to Africa, is the most serious pest of coffee in many of the major coffee-producing countries in the world (Vega et al., 2009, 2012). Coffee leaf rust caused by the obligate parasitic fungus Hemileia vastatrix causes considerable economic losses to coffee producers (Diola et al., 2011), especially with C. arabica, and is currently found in all coffee-growing regions of the world. Direct impacts of climate change will result in stressed growth of coffee trees, limited flowering and berry development, poor yield, and poor quality of the coffee beans. In 2009, Dulloo et al. In order to make coffee production sustainable, attention should be paid to improving the quality of coffee by engaging in sustainable, environmentally friendly cultivation practices, which ultimately can claim higher net returns. In addition, institutional and project-based initiatives launched by industry, NGOs, and governments add to the confusion and are limited in their ability to address macroeconomic problems and lack consistency across initiatives. (2012). They say that their official position is that the drought is being exacerbated by deforestation on the top of the hills, which is stopping the land and wells from absorbing water. The dominance of unshaded coffee systems makes coffee production in Brazil vulnerable for impacts of climate change with … It was accidentally introduced into Brazil in 1913, after which it invaded coffee plantations throughout South and Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean (Infante et al., 2012). "Climate change is happening," he tells me, "we can see it. ... climate change will have a huge impact on coffee production, The trees and animals helped to prevent topsoil erosion and prevented a need for fertilisers. A characteristic of coffee production is the biennial pattern of fruit bearing by the trees, with high yield in alternate years. In the 1970s, there was a tremendous push in Central American countries toward less shaded or open-sun production systems, with the objective of increasing yields. In addition, the coffee marketing system and sharing of benefits has to pass through a complex value chain, with the benefits rarely reaching poor communities in developing countries. The Arabica coffee tree is a small tree with the potential in the wild to reach 9 to 12 meters in height, growing at an altitude of 1,300 to 2,000 meters above sea level. Coffee berries infested by coffee berry borer with visible entry holes. This intensification system was promoted more in countries with strong governmental ministries and research institutions advocating modern practices for higher yields and reduction in complexity of traditionally managed systems, such as Costa Rica, Colombia, and Kenya. Lourdes Garcia-Navarro/NPR This was the basis of the “Typica” genetic line of coffee. The effects explored on such communities in Costa Rica, Southeast Asia and Africa will be economic, social and environmental. The first coffeehouse in the United States opened in Boston in 1689. 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